Clomid All You Need to Know: Dosage, Benefits, and Side Effects

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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

  1. What is Clomid?
  2. How Does Clomid Work?
  3. Study & Development
  4. Benefits of Clomid
  5. Clomid for Women
  6. Clomid for Men
  7. Side Effects of Clomid
  8. Dosage
  9. FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
  10. Conclusion

Clomid is a well-known brand name and nickname for the generic drug clomiphene citrate which is also known as a fertility drug. Is Clomid a viable treatment option for infertility? 

Continue reading to find out more!

What is Clomid?

Clomid (clomiphene) is a fertility medication that is non-steroidal. It stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormones that stimulate ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary).

Clomid is a prescription medication used to treat infertility symptoms in women who have ovulatory failure. Clomid can be used alone or in combination with other medications. Clomid belongs to a drug class known as Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators. Clomid is not known to be safe or effective in children.

This oral fertility medication has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in women who are unable to conceive. It influences the body’s hormone balance and promotes ovulation. Learn more about the use of off-label prescription drugs.

Clomid is used to induce ovulation in women who have medical conditions that prevent natural ovulation (such as polycystic ovary syndrome).

How does Clomid Work?

Clomid prevents estrogen from interacting with the pituitary gland. When estrogen interacts with the pituitary gland, it causes a decrease in the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

This causes a drop in testosterone and, as a result, a drop in sperm production. Because Clomid prevents estrogen from interacting with the pituitary gland, the body produces more LH, FSH, and testosterone. The optimal dosing in males has yet to be determined. The daily dose can range from 12.5 to 400 milligrams (mg). 

According to a recent review, a starting dose of 25 mg three times per week should be followed by gradually titrating — or adjusting the dosage — until the dose is 50 mg per day as needed. Clomid at high doses can actually have a negative effect on sperm count and motility. To ensure proper dosage, always consult with your healthcare provider.

Study and Development

Clomid is commonly used to treat female infertility. Although it is not approved by the FDA for use in males, it is frequently prescribed off-label for the treatment of male infertility. Clomid use can result in an increase in testosterone and sperm count. Male efficacy studies have yielded conflicting results.

Other treatments for male infertility include other medications, surgery to remove blockages, artificial insemination, IVF, and so on. If you are concerned about male fertility factors, speak with your doctor about your options.

Action

CLOMID is a drug with a high pharmacological potency. CLOMID has been shown to be a useful therapy for the anovulatory patient desiring pregnancy with careful selection and proper patient management.

Clomiphene citrate interacts with estrogen-receptor-containing tissues such as the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, endometrium, vagina, and cervix. It may compete with estrogen for estrogen-receptor-binding sites and may cause a delay in the replenishment of intracellular estrogen receptors.

Clomiphene citrate causes a cascade of endocrine events that culminate in a preovulatory gonadotropin surge and follicular rupture. The first endocrine event that occurs in response to clomiphene therapy is an increase in pituitary gonadotropin release. This causes steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, which leads to ovarian follicle growth and an increase in the circulating level of estradiol. Plasma progesterone and estradiol levels rise and fall after ovulation, just like they would in a normal ovulatory cycle.

Clomiphene citrate does not appear to have progestational, androgenic, or antiandrogenic effects, and it does not appear to interfere with pituitary-adrenal or pituitary-thyroid function. Although there is no evidence of a “carryover effect” of CLOMID, some patients have experienced spontaneous ovulatory menses following CLOMID therapy.

Pharmacokinetics

Early studies with 14C-labeled clomiphene citrate revealed that the drug was easily absorbed orally in humans and excreted primarily in the feces. After 5 days, cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of 14C averaged about 50% of the oral dose and 37% of an intravenous dose. The average urinary excretion was about 8%, with a fecal excretion of about 42%.

Six weeks after administration, some 14C label was still present in the feces. Following single-dose studies in healthy volunteers, it was discovered that zuclomiphene (cis) has a longer half-life than enclomiphene (trans). Zuclomiphene levels were detectable in these subjects for more than a month. This could be due to stereo-specific enterohepatic recycling or zuclomiphene sequestration. As a result, some active drug may remain in the body during early pregnancy in women who conceive during the menstrual cycle while receiving CLOMID therapy.

Clinical Research

During clinical trials, 7578 patients were given CLOMID, some of whom had ovulatory impediments other than ovulatory dysfunction (see INDICATIONS). In those clinical trials, approximately 30% of the patients received successful therapy characterized by pregnancy.

During the clinical trial period, a total of 2635 pregnancies were reported. Only information on the outcome of 2369 of those pregnancies was available. Multiple pregnancies occurred in 7.98 percent of reported pregnancies: 6.9 percent twin, 0.5 percent triplet, 0.3 percent quadruplet, and 0.1 percent quintuplet. The ratio of monozygotic to dizygotic twins was approximately 1:5 of the 165 twin pregnancies for which sufficient information was available. The survival rate of live multiple births is shown in Table 1.

Following the completion of the original clinical studies, a sextuplet birth was reported; none of the sextuplets survived (each weighed less than 400 g), despite appearing grossly normal.

Benefits

Clomid has the following benefits that make this medication the best option:

  • It is a low-cost treatment for infertility, especially when compared to other options such as IVF.
  • Clomid is taken orally, making it less invasive than other treatments.
  • It can be prescribed by your OB-GYN or primary care provider rather than a reproductive specialist.
  • There are few side effects, and women who take it generally tolerate it well.
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Clomid for Women

This medication is used to treat female infertility. It works by increasing the amount of hormones that support the development and release of a mature egg (ovulation). This medication is not recommended for women whose ovaries are no longer producing eggs normally (primary pituitary or ovarian failure). While both men and women can benefit from Clomid, the treatment regimens are different. Clomid should be taken for five days at the beginning of a woman’s cycle.

Clomid may be tried first if a woman has irregular cycles or anovulatory cycles (menstruation without ovulation). Clomid is frequently used to treat infertility caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

It may also be used in cases of unexplained infertility or when a couple prefers not to use more costly and invasive fertility treatments. (However, keep in mind that the more expensive treatment is not always the best option.)

Clomid can also be used during IUI (intrauterine insemination) or IVF (in vitro fertilization) procedures. Clomid may be used in conjunction with injectable ovulation medications during IVF to induce a stronger response.

infographic on the Clomid use for women

Clomid for Men

Male-factor infertility is just as common as female-factor infertility, according to the doctors at Texas Fertility Center. Many factors, including structural issues and hormonal imbalances, can contribute to male infertility. As a result, many treatments are available to address the underlying causes of male factor infertility.

A man can overreact to Clomid by producing an excessive amount of testosterone. Because this can reduce his sperm count, it is critical to reassess the man’s hormone levels a few weeks after he begins taking the medication. If his testosterone level is too high, he can take half a pill every other day.

It takes 90 to 108 days from the time sperm is produced in the testicles to the time it is ejaculated for a man to see results from Clomid. As a result, unless there is no improvement by the fourth month of treatment, a man should not stop taking the medication.

Clomiphene citrate, or Clomid, is one treatment that specialists use to treat female infertility. Clomid is recommended by doctors for men who have low sperm counts. A low testosterone level can cause a low sperm count in some men. It may appear logical to give more testosterone to a man who has low testosterone levels; however, this can actually reduce his sperm count. A similar situation exists in women, where estrogen-containing birth control pills prevent egg development and ovulation.

infographic on the Clomid use for men

Side Effects of Clomid

If you have any of the following symptoms of an allergic reaction to Clomid: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat, seek emergency medical attention.

Some women who take this medication develop a condition known as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), especially after the first dose. OHSS is a potentially fatal condition. If you have any of the following OHSS symptoms, contact your doctor right away:

  • Stomach ache, bloating
  • Nauseousness, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Rapid weight gain, particularly in the face and midsection;
  • Urinating infrequently or not at all; or
  • Breathing difficulty, rapid heart rate, and a feeling of being out of breath (especially when lying down).
  • Pelvic pain or pressure, or enlargement of the pelvic area;
  • Vision issues;
  • Seeing “floaters” or flashes of light in your vision;
  • Increased light sensitivity in your eyes; or
  • A lot of vaginal bleeding
  • Flushing (a warm, red, or tingly sensation);
  • Breast tenderness or pain;
  • Or a headache
  • Bleeding or spotting that appears unexpectedly.

This is not an exhaustive list of possible side effects; others may occur. For medical advice on side effects, contact your doctor.

Dosage

Clomid should be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor. All of the instructions on your prescription label must be followed. Your doctor may adjust your dose from time to time to ensure you get the best results. Take this medication in larger or smaller doses, or for longer than recommended.

Your doctor will perform medical tests to ensure that you do not have any conditions that would prevent you from using Clomid safely. Clomid is typically taken for 5 days, beginning on the fifth day of your menstrual cycle. Follow your doctor’s advice. Before each treatment cycle, you will need to have a pelvic examination. While using Clomid, you must remain under the care of a doctor.

After taking Clomid, you will most likely ovulate within 5 to 10 days. You should have sexual relations while you are ovulating to increase your chances of becoming pregnant.

Your doctor may instruct you to take your temperature every morning and keep track of your daily readings on a chart. This will assist you in determining when to expect ovulation. Clomid should not be used for more than three treatment cycles in most cases.

If ovulation occurs but you do not become pregnant after three treatment cycles, your doctor may decide to discontinue treatment and further evaluate your infertility. Store away from moisture, heat, and light at room temperature.

FAQs

What exactly does Clomid do?

Clomid is also known as clomiphene citrate. It’s an oral medication that’s commonly used to treat the symptoms of female infertility.

How long does it usually take to get pregnant on Clomid?

If you have ovulation problems, Clomid gives you an 80% chance of ovulation, usually within the first three months. Because of this increase in ovulation, most females have a 50% chance of becoming pregnant within the first six months of using Clomid.

When should Clomid be taken?

Clomid is typically taken for five days, beginning on the fifth day of your menstrual cycle. Follow your doctor’s instructions. A pelvic exam will be required before each treatment cycle. You must continue to be under the care of your doctor while taking Clomid.

What is the side effect of Clomid?

Clomid’s most common and serious side effects include:

  • Enlargement of the ovaries
  • flushes vasomotor
  • Discomfort in the abdomen-pelvis
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Visual manifestations

Conclusion

Clomid is commonly used to treat female infertility. Although it is not approved by the FDA for use in males, it is frequently prescribed off-label for the treatment of male infertility. Clomid use can result in an increase in testosterone and sperm count. Male efficacy studies have yielded conflicting results.

Other treatments for male infertility include: other medications, surgery to remove blockages, artificial insemination, IVF, and so on. If you are concerned about male fertility factors, speak with your doctor about your options.

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DISCLAIMER:

The information provided above is not intended to substitute professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek your physician’s advice or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have seen or read. We bear no responsibility or liability for your use of any compound.